|时间：2019-06-02 20:52:48｜人气：265 |
|100 Famous Women in China (12)|
|91. Yin Guifang 尹桂芳 (a famous actress of Shaoxing opera)|
Yin Guifang (12/01/1919—03/01/2000) was born in a poor family. Her father died when she was only seven. She was a famous actress of Shaoxing opera or Yue opera, like Beijing opera. Shaoxing is a town in Zhejiang province, which has a simplified name Yue. There are many local operas in China. Beijing opera is only one of them. In every opera, the actors and actresses sing in different dialects. The dialogue or words of songs in Beijing opera are said or sung in mandarin. Those of Shaoxing opera are said or sung in Shaoxing dialect.
Yin always acted the main male character. In Shaoxing opera, only actresses perform. No actors traditionally. So the male characters were played by actresses attired like actors, yet in female voices. Nowadays, Shaoxing opera had a little reform. Actors were trained to play male roles.
At the age of ten, she began to learn the acting of Shaoxing opera in Sheng town in Zhejiang province, which was deemed the “homeland” of Shaoxing opera. In 1933, she went with her troupe on a performing tour to Shaoxing, Ninpo, and Hangzhou, and some other towns. At the end of 1934, another troupe needed an actress to play as an actor. Therefore, she was invited to go there. Thus she became famous.
In 1938, she came to Shanghai and soon in 1940, she became the chief actress in the troupe. Generally the performance of Shaoxing opera was about old stories, that is to say, the costumes were of the old styles like people wore in the ancient China. In 1942, despite the opposition of the owner of the theater, she insisted in playing modern stories, that is to say, the actresses wore modern costumes, like people in the forties of the nineteenth century wore. The owner objected to it because he was afraid that the change might affect his box office earnings. Anyway, the new opera Gold and Beauty was on in June, which was welcomed by the audience. The new notion was a success.
In spring of 1945, she invited some play writers to write new operas, such as Desert Prince, and The Love''s Dream, etc. However, at the same time, they also acted some old operas like Baoyu and Daiyu, both were the names of the hero and heroine in the well-known novel Red Chamber Dream. They did this to meet the wish of part of the audience who liked to watch old stories. In 1946, she and her partner founded their own troupe. Besides the former operas, they had a new opera Begonias, which was the nickname of an actor in the opera. It was a tragedy.
In 1947, when another famous actress of Shaoxing opera want to have benefit performance for the people in some disastrous regions, she supported the action and gave up her own plan to make a film. In 1948, she was voted to be the “Emperor of Yue Opera” because she acted the male role. In 1952, she performed The Tale of West Chamber and The Tale of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, another tragedy. In 1954, there was a joint performance for many local operas. Their opera Qu Yuan won the first prize for the play, the acting, and the music. The Character Qu Yuan was a patriotic poet as well as a high-rank official in Chu state in the first warring period (770—221 BC). In 1955, she was selected as the so-called people''s representative of Shanghai municipal conference.
In 1959, her troupe was relocated to Fuzhou town in Fujian province across to Taiwan, and she was chosen to be the people''s representative of the town''s conference. In 1960, she was accepted to be a member of CPC. During the cultural revolution, she was beaten by the local red guards and became handicapped. One of her legs and one of her arms were paralyzed as her spine was damaged. In 1978, after the arrest of the gang of four, she was rewarded with a lot of titles: member of national literary federation, vice chairwoman of Fujian branch of national dramatist association of China, and member of Chinese People''s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in Fujian province. In 1979, though paralyzed, she went to Shanghai to hold her solo concert, helped by Shaoxing Opera theater of Shanghai and the Academy of Arts of China. In the concert, she sang some famous pieces of her tune in her opera Memory of My Country. In 1986, they held the celebration of their fortieth anniversary of their troupe. From the tenth to the seventeenth of December in 1990, the troupe went to perform in Hong Kong. On the first of March in 2000, she died, leaving her arts of Shaoxing opera for her disciples to inherit.