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普通主题 100 Famous Women in China (12) 【按树型格式阅读】
作者:海外逸士 2019-06-02 20:52:48|最后回复:海外逸士 2019-07-21 20:06:23|人气:95|回复:7
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100 Famous Women in China (12)
91. Yin Guifang 尹桂芳 (a famous actress of Shaoxing opera)

Yin Guifang (12/01/1919—03/01/2000) was born in a poor family. Her father died when she was only seven. She was a famous actress of Shaoxing opera or Yue opera, like Beijing opera. Shaoxing is a town in Zhejiang province, which has a simplified name Yue. There are many local operas in China. Beijing opera is only one of them. In every opera, the actors and actresses sing in different dialects. The dialogue or words of songs in Beijing opera are said or sung in mandarin. Those of Shaoxing opera are said or sung in Shaoxing dialect.
Yin always acted the main male character. In Shaoxing opera, only actresses perform. No actors traditionally. So the male characters were played by actresses attired like actors, yet in female voices. Nowadays, Shaoxing opera had a little reform. Actors were trained to play male roles.
At the age of ten, she began to learn the acting of Shaoxing opera in Sheng town in Zhejiang province, which was deemed the “homeland” of Shaoxing opera. In 1933, she went with her troupe on a performing tour to Shaoxing, Ninpo, and Hangzhou, and some other towns. At the end of 1934, another troupe needed an actress to play as an actor. Therefore, she was invited to go there. Thus she became famous.
In 1938, she came to Shanghai and soon in 1940, she became the chief actress in the troupe. Generally the performance of Shaoxing opera was about old stories, that is to say, the costumes were of the old styles like people wore in the ancient China. In 1942, despite the opposition of the owner of the theater, she insisted in playing modern stories, that is to say, the actresses wore modern costumes, like people in the forties of the nineteenth century wore. The owner objected to it because he was afraid that the change might affect his box office earnings. Anyway, the new opera Gold and Beauty was on in June, which was welcomed by the audience. The new notion was a success.
In spring of 1945, she invited some play writers to write new operas, such as Desert Prince, and The Love''s Dream, etc. However, at the same time, they also acted some old operas like Baoyu and Daiyu, both were the names of the hero and heroine in the well-known novel Red Chamber Dream. They did this to meet the wish of part of the audience who liked to watch old stories. In 1946, she and her partner founded their own troupe. Besides the former operas, they had a new opera Begonias, which was the nickname of an actor in the opera. It was a tragedy.
In 1947, when another famous actress of Shaoxing opera want to have benefit performance for the people in some disastrous regions, she supported the action and gave up her own plan to make a film. In 1948, she was voted to be the “Emperor of Yue Opera” because she acted the male role. In 1952, she performed The Tale of West Chamber and The Tale of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, another tragedy. In 1954, there was a joint performance for many local operas. Their opera Qu Yuan won the first prize for the play, the acting, and the music. The Character Qu Yuan was a patriotic poet as well as a high-rank official in Chu state in the first warring period (770—221 BC). In 1955, she was selected as the so-called people''s representative of Shanghai municipal conference.
In 1959, her troupe was relocated to Fuzhou town in Fujian province across to Taiwan, and she was chosen to be the people''s representative of the town''s conference. In 1960, she was accepted to be a member of CPC. During the cultural revolution, she was beaten by the local red guards and became handicapped. One of her legs and one of her arms were paralyzed as her spine was damaged. In 1978, after the arrest of the gang of four, she was rewarded with a lot of titles: member of national literary federation, vice chairwoman of Fujian branch of national dramatist association of China, and member of Chinese People''s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) in Fujian province. In 1979, though paralyzed, she went to Shanghai to hold her solo concert, helped by Shaoxing Opera theater of Shanghai and the Academy of Arts of China. In the concert, she sang some famous pieces of her tune in her opera Memory of My Country. In 1986, they held the celebration of their fortieth anniversary of their troupe. From the tenth to the seventeenth of December in 1990, the troupe went to perform in Hong Kong. On the first of March in 2000, she died, leaving her arts of Shaoxing opera for her disciples to inherit.
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92. Zhou Xuan 周璇 (a movie star and singer with golden voice)
Zhou Xuan (08/01/1920—09/22/1957) was born in Changzhou town of Jiangsu province. She was the second child of the eight sisters and brothers. In 1923, she was kidnapped by her uncle, who liked to smoke opium. The uncle gave her to a Wang family in another town for the exchange of some money. When Wang couple divorced, they gave her to a Zhou family in Shanghai, which gave her the chance to be a movie star.
She liked to sing, and at school, her grade in the singing class was always the first. In 1928, the family was broke and the adoptive father wanted to sell her to a brothel, but her adoptive mother strongly objected to it. In 1931, she joined the Mingyue Singing & Dancing Ensemble. In 1932, she acted the main role in the musical drama Express Train on stage, and sang the theme song, which became popular and was made in the gramophone record. In the same year, she performed in another musical drama.
At the beginning of 1934, after her performance on stage for some time, she was invited to sing on radio. Then she was the second in the radio singer competition and got the nickname golden voice. In 1935, she was invited to act in her first film Children of Trouble Time. Only she had a side role. But it was the first step for her to enter the film circle. In 1936 she acted the main role in four films.
In 1937, she acted in the musical film for some business advertisement, which was not so welcome as others, but the theme song When Will You Come Again was very popular. Almost all people in Shanghai knew it and the records sold well. Her most popular film was Street Angel, in which two theme songs were especially welcomed by the public. They were Wandering Songstress and Song of four Seasons. Afterwards, she joined the performing tour in Hong Kong and Philippines. She returned with the troupe in the summer of 1938.
In February of 1940, she took the part of the heroine in the film Dong Xiaowan (see above), who was a famous prostitute at the end of Ming dynasty. In June of the same year, she acted in the famous love comedy Three Smiles, and in December, she acted in the movie Tale of the West Chamber. In 1941, Shanghai Daily held an activity to vote for film queen. She was voted to be the film queen, but she refused to take the title, because she thought that too much honor was not a good thing.
In June of 1944, she accepted the role of the heroine in the film Red Chamber Dream. It was the first Chinese film that was introduced to Japan. In March of 1945, she began to act in the film Phoenix on the Wing. And in May of the same year, she gave her solo concert for three days in Jindu Theater in Shanghai, singing all her popular songs.
In winter of 1946, she was invited to fly to Hong Kong and in January next year she began to shoot her first film in Hong Kong. Her theme song Night of Shanghai became a popular song ever since. In the same year, she shot another film, in which she played two different roles: a village girl, kind and naive; a Hong Kong girl, naughty and haughty. In 1948, she acted in the film Secrets of Qing Palace, which was another of her master pieces and which attracted international attention for a Chinese female movie star.
She returned to Shanghai from Hong Kong in 1950. And in January of 1951, she was invited to play the main role in the film Dove of Peace, but during the shooting, she fell sick and was diagnosed of some kind of nerve disease. She was sent to a nursing home. In July of 1957, she got meningitis and was sent to the hospital. She died of that disease on the twenty-second of September.
In autumn of 1936, she got engagement with a composer and married him on the tenth of July in 1938. The marriage lasted for three years. Then each suspected the other of having affairs with someone else. After a series of quarrels, Zhou Xuan left home and they got divorced in 1941. Then she lived together with a cloth businessman without a formal marriage. She had two sons with him. Then it was rumored that the man cheated her out of her money. So in 1950, she made open declaration to stop living together with him. Then she knew a painting teacher. But when she prepared to marry him in May of 1952, the teacher was arrested for cheating and sentenced for three years'' service. She lived alone till her death.
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93. Shangguan Yunzhu 上官雲珠
93. Shangguan Yunzhu 上官雲珠 (a famous actress, also Mao''s mistress)
Shangguan (double surname) Yunzhu (03/02/1920—11/23/1968) was born in a small town in Jiangsu province. In 1936, she married a painting teacher, a Mr. Zhang, and next year, she went to Shanghai with Zhang. At first she worked in a photo gallery. In 1940, she was admitted into a drama school to learn acting. In 1941, she first appeared on stage in the drama Thunder and was a success.
She got divorced with Zhang, with whom she had a son. Then she married a graduate from Yale and bore a daughter in 1944 for him. But she divorced him in 1946. She turned to be a film actress and acted in the following films: An Illusion of Paradise, A river of Spring Water flows East, Hope in the World, and Crow and Sparrow, etc.
After 1949, she worked in Shanghai Film Factory and acted in Early Spring, and Stage Door Johnny, etc. In 1951, she married the manager of Lyceum Theater and bore a son for him. But they divorced in 1952.
In the fifties, when Mao came to Shanghai, the mayor Ke arranged her to meet Mao in Jinjiang Hotel. It was said by one of her best friends that when Mao received her, Mao was just putting on a sleeping robe. Mao showed her a slip of note paper, saying that since olden time heroes love beauties. He (Mao) was a hero and she (Shangguan) was a beauty. Afterwards she gave her friend this note to keep for her. For several years she became Mao''s secret mistress. Whenever Mao came to Shanghai, she would be summoned to see him. She had once been taken to Beijing, to where Mao lived—ZhongNanHai. Then Mao''s liking of her faded. He got younger girls.
During the cultural revolution, she was persecuted by Jiang Qing, Mao''s wife, who ordered to organize a special investigating team to deal with her. They wanted her to confess what she did when she was with Mao. She said what she could and refused to say what she could not. So this was not satisfactory and she was tormented. Finally she made suicide by jumping down from a high building at three a.m., on the twenty-third of November in 1968 at the age of forty-eight. It was reported in the official record. But the truth was later known that she was thrown down by the team from the high building. At that time, she was surely confined in a room in that high building as always in such cases. There was someone watching over her. How could she jump out?
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海外逸士说:93. Shangguan Yunzhu 上官雲珠
93. Shangguan Yunzhu 上官雲珠 (a famous actress, also Mao''s mistress…
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94. Bai Yang 白楊 (international movie award winner)
Bai Yang (04/22/1920—09/18/1996) was born in Peking. In 1931 at the age of eleven, she started to learn acting in a film company. In 1934 she joined a touring troupe. Her career thus began. In 1936, her first film was Crossroads, which brought her popularity. She was even known internationally. The Times in England said that she was the Chinese Greta Garbo.
During the Anti-Japanese war she was in Chongqing city, the temporary capital of the Chinese government since the capital Nanking city was occupied by the Japanese. She acted in a few films such as Wings of China, etc., and performed some dramas on the stage such as Sunrise, etc. In 1946 after the surrender of Japan, she went to Shanghai and had two famous films made: Eight Thousand Li of Cloud and Moon and A River of Spring Water Flows East.
After 1949, she worked in Shanghai Film Factory first as actress and then as conductor. She was also the vice director of Arts Committee and vice chairwomen of China Film Association. In 1960s, she acted in several films, one of which was Blessing. For her acting of the heroine in the film, she was conferred the special award of the tenth Karlovy Vary International Film Festival. She also published some books about film acting and skills.
During the cultural revolution, she was beaten by red guards severely. She was put in prison for five years. In 1971, she ended the dark prison life, but was sent to labor in the countryside. She was redressed in 1977. She wrote an article about her sad experience, which was published in People Daily. In 1980s, she played the role of Soong Qinglin (see above) in a TV serial film like soap opera. She died on the eighteenth of September in 1996 at the age of seventy-six.
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海外逸士说:94. Bai Yang 白楊 (international movie award winner)
Bai Yang (04/22/1920—09/18/1996) was born in Peking. In 1931 at the age of eleven, she started to learn acting in a film company. In 1934 she joined a touring troupe. Her career thus began. In 1936, her first film was Crossroads, which brought her popularity. She was even known internationally. The Times in England said that she was the Chinese Greta Garbo…
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95. 紅線女 Hongxiannuu (a famous actress of Canton opera)
Hongxiannu (12/27/1924—12/08/2013) was the nickname of Kuang Jianlian and was born in Canton. Her nickname literally meant “Red thread Woman.” She was a famous actress of Canton opera. When she was eight, she learned to sing Canton opera by following the gramophone records. In 1938, as the Japanese invaders came into China, she went with her mother to Hong Kong via Macao. In spring of 1939, she began to take some assisting parts on the stage like maids. In 1940, she joined the troupe founded by her maternal aunt and got the present nickname. In 1941, she went with the troupe to Shanghai. At the end of that year, the Japanese army occupied Hong Kong. The troupe went to perform in the regions that were still under the control of the Chinese government. She married in 1944 and had two sons and a daughter. The husband was much older than she.
After the surrender of Japan, she returned to Hong Kong to learn Beijing opera for three years. Afterwards she performed on the stage Madama Butterfly, etc. In 1946 in Hong Kong, she acted the successful opera Hidden Desire, a full house everyday for a month. Next year this opera was turned into a screenplay and made on a film. At the beginning of 1950, she founded the Red Star Troupe and acted in the Tears of Pearl River. In 1952, the opera Wang Zhaojun (the second beauty, see above) was on. She also tried to turn Shakespeare''s plays into Canton operas.
In 1955, she was divorced, and in the same year, she was invited by Premier Zhou to the mianland, and in 1965, she was invited as a VIP to attend the national ceremony for the seventh anniversary of the establishment of the People''s Republic of China. In 1957, she came from Hong Kong to Canton to work for Guangdong Canton Opera Troupe.
During the cultural revolution, she and her family were persecuted. Half of her hair was shaved, a sign of insult. She was called by the red guards as the Black Thread Woman. In 1967, she was sent to labor on a tea farm. In 1970, Premier Zhou came to Canton for an international conference, and she was allowed to act for the foreign visitors. In 1975, she married a writer. The husband died of cancer ten years later. During his stay in the hospital, she went there almost everyday to look after him.
Her daughter Hong Hong was also an actress of Canton opera. Disgusting of the tyranny of CPC, in March of 1984 when she went with the troupe to Hong Kong, she disappeared. Half a year later, on the ninth of October, she appeared in Taiwan and held a press conference, saying that she desired freedom and so left the mainland. Afterwards she immigrated to Canada. It was said that she had secretly gone back to see her mother before the mother died of myocardial infarction on the eighth of December in 2013 in Canton.
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海外逸士说:95. 紅線女 Hongxiannuu (a famous actress of Canton opera)
Hongxiannu (12/27/1924—12/08/2013) was the nickname of Kuang Jianlian and was born in Canton. Her nickname literally meant “Red thread Woman.” She was a famous actress of Canton opera. When she was eight, she learned to sing Canton opera by following the gramophone records. In 1938, as the Japanese invaders came into China, she went with her mother to Hong Kong via Macao. In spring of 1939, she began to take some assisting parts on the stage like maids. In 1940, she joined the troupe founded by her maternal aunt and got the present nickname. In 1941, she went with the troupe to Shanghai. At the end of that year, the Japanese army occupied Hong Kong. The troupe went to perform in the regions that were still under the control of the Chinese government. She married in 1944 and had two sons and a daughter. The husband was much older than she…
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96. 嚴鳳英 Yan Fengying (a famous actress of Huangmei opera)
Yan Fengying (04/13/1930—04/08/1968) was born in Tong town of Anhui province, where the local opera was Huangmei (literally meaning Yellow Plum) opera. She was the most famous actress of that opera. At the age of ten, she started to learn acting and singing of the opera, and went with the troupe to act some side roles. In 1930s, the troupe entered Anqin, a big city in Anhui province. The opera was so welcomed by the public that they had to play three times a day. But her family did not like her to be an actress of Huangmei opera, and so she had to flee to Nanking city and gave up the acting of the opera.
During her stay in Nanking city, she had to sing in a public ballroom. At that time in China there were such ballrooms in big cities, where there was a band with female singers to sing to the music. Customers could dance to the music too. There was a dancing floor in the middle. There were also some female dancers, who could dance with male customers for money. The girls did that for a living.
In 1947, she went to learn Beijing opera, which helped her later in her acting of Huangmei opera. In 1949, Anhui province wanted to develop the Huangmei opera and invited her to come back to Anqin city. In 1952, there was a joint performance of operas in Shanghai. Her acting was widely praised. She was only twenty-two then. In 1954, she had the Huangmei opera Marriage of a Goddess with a Mortal made into a film. It was said that more than one hundred million audience had watched the film. Then she was known the nation over. Other two films were made, too, Female Consort (1958) and Cowboy & Girl Weaver (1963). Both were welcomed by the public.
Right at the start of the cultural revolution, she was persecuted and committed suicide at the age of thirty-eight. The authorities accused her of spy and for the reason to search for a radio transmitter, or a spy camera, they had her abdomen opened and her insides taken out. During the cultural revolution many innocent people were accused of spies, and therefore, persecuted without any evidence. They just wanted to have a reason to persecute someone, anyone, they wanted to torture. However, what they found in her belly was more than one hundred sleeping pills. She thus died a tragic death.
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海外逸士说:96. 嚴鳳英 Yan Fengying (a famous actress of Huangmei opera)
Yan Fengying (04/13/1930—04/08/1968) was born in Tong town of Anhui province, where the local opera was Huangmei (literally meaning Yellow Plum) opera. She was the most famous actress of that opera. At the age of ten, she started to learn acting and singing of the opera, and went with the troupe to act some side roles. In 1930s, the troupe entered Anqin, a big city in Anhui province. The opera was so welcomed by the public that they had to play three times a day. But her family did not like her to be an actress of Huangmei opera, and so she had to flee to Nanking city and gave up the acting of the opera.…
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97. 張志新 Zhang Zhixin (a member of as well as a victim of CPC)
Zhang Zhixin (12/05/1930—04/04/1975) was a female member of the Communist Party of China. She was born in a music family. Her father had joined the revolutionary army against Qing dynasty. She learned Russian and worked as a translator. On the National Day of 1955, she got married and in the same year, she joined the Communist Party. Later she had a daughter and a son.
In the so-called Great Cultural Revolution, she was thrown into prison, though a party member, because she criticized Mao''s class-fight theory. At that time, whoever dared to criticize Mao would be a criminal, called Reactionary. As she persisted that she was right in the criticism of Mao''s theory, she was sentenced to death. In the prison, she had been repeatedly raped and tortured. Her mouth and tongue was sewed up with iron wires. She was put on her back a heavy burden of 9 kg, and her legs wore heavy fetters. In May of 1970, she was sentenced for death in the local court. But in a higher court of province level, her case was reconsidered. She was thought that she had no action, had only oral criticism, and so her sentence was changed to two years imprisonment, then was changed again to fifteen years. During the long custody, she had shouted “Down with Mao Zetong!” So her verdict was changed for life. At a gathering, she stood up and shouted that Mao Zedong was the cause of wrong action of the party. Then she was changed to death sentence.
Before she was transported to the execution site, her throat was cut lest she should yell out some words against the Gang of Four to the crowds coming for the sight. When she died, her daughter was twelve and her son was only three.
On the first of March in 1979, she was redressed and defined as a revolutionary martyr. In August at the second session of the fifth National People''s Congress, a cadre of high rank said, “From the wrong case of Zhang Zhixin, we can understand that if there is no socialist democracy and law system, the dictatorship of proletariat will surely become the dictatorship of fascism.” Think she yearned to join CPC and worked for CPC, but as the result, she was killed by CPC.
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98. 林昭 Lin Zhao
98. 林昭 Lin Zhao (a victim of CPC tyranny)
Lin Zhao (12/16/1932—04/29/1968 AD) was her pen name, and her real name was Peng Linzhao. She was born in Suzhou city. During the reign of KMD government, her father had been the mayor of Wu town and her mother was the general manager of Dahua newspaper, which supported Communist Party of China. She secretly got donations for CPC, and also set up an underground radio station for CPC, too. She had been arrested for that by Japanese. Therefore, in her family, mother tended to CPC and father tended to KMD politically. Lin Zhao did not know which way she must take. In 1943 when she entered a high school in Suzhou city, the influence of her mother got the upper hand on her. So she tended to CPC. In July of 1949, she was enrolled in a school run by CPC. This school was named the “Revolutionary Cradle.” When CPC wanted her to reveal what her farther had done against CPC, to show her loyalty to them, she had to invent some untruth about her father. Afterwards, she felt sorry for her father. After she graduated from that school, she joined in the land reform movement. The land reform team, to show that they had power to do anything for the peasants, put the landlords in big vats filled with cold water as it was winter. The landlords trembled with cold. Lin Zhao said that she felt cruel happiness. It was revolution. To show to CPC that she had cut off relationship with her father, she changed her name from Peng Linzhao to Linzhao, hence he pen name later.
In 1954, she was enrolled in the department of journalism in Beijing University. She decided to be a best reporter in Mao Zedong''s time. Now as she faced reality, she found that reality was not what she had imagined. So good. As she got mature in thinking, she wanted to write what she thought. Then she became a co-editor of the university magazine. In the spring of 1955, she joined the poetic society of Beijing University and was an editor of Poetry Magazine of Beijing University, which stopped publishing in the autumn of 1956. Then she became a member of the editing committee of “Red Tower,” which was a student''s literary magazine.
On the nineteenth day of May in1957, another member of the editing committee put up a so-called Big-Word Paper criticizing something wrong in reality. The member was later expelled from the committee. Once Lin Zhao said to the member that she felt that she was like being deceived. Anyway, she supported the criticism.
When the so-called Anti-Rightist movement began, she was defined as a rightist because of her support of the rightist idea. Lin Zhao did not know what to think. She said the truth, but she was told wrong. She swallowed a lot of sleeping pills for suicide, but she was saved. On the twenty-fifth day of December in 1957, the other member was secretly arrested and sentenced for eight years in labor camp. She got only three years, but she did not go to the labor camp owing to her poor health. In Beijing University, out of eight thousand student and staff, fifteen hundred were rightists, though redressed twenty years later. But her bad dream was not over yet.
Instead of laboring in a camp, she labored in the reference room of the department of journalism and in the same reference room a male rightist worked too. They gradually fell in love with each other. When they applied to the authorities for the permission for marriage, their application was denied. They must first reform their thinking, not getting married. In September of 1959, the male rightist was sent to a labor reform camp in Xinjiang Autonomous Region in the farthest west of China. Her sickness worsened and in winter, she coughed blood. She wanted to take leave to go back to Shanghai to get recovered. In the spring of 1960, she was allowed to go to Shanghai. Her mother came to fetch her.
After some rest her health got better. In Shanghai, she began to know three male students from Lanzhou University. They planed to publish a magazine named “Star and Fire” so that they could have somewhere to publish their writings to criticize the bad current affairs. When their first issue came out, all the members of the magazine were arrested, and so was she in October of 1960. At the beginning of 1962, she was released on medical parole. In September that year, She went to Suzhou city and drafted the program and articles of a political organization called “Fighting Union of Free Youth of China.” Then they asked a foreigner to take out two of their articles “We are guiltless” and “Letter to the Principle of Beijing University” to some foreign countries to publish there. In December that year, she was put in jail again. In the prison when she wanted to write something, she had no pen and paper. So she wrote on white sheets with her own blood. As she did not yield and insisted on what she thought right, she was handcuffed behind the back. Sometimes, they put two pairs of handcuff on her wrists. Even when she had stomach ache or had periods, they did not take off even one pair of handcuff from her.
On the thirty-first of May in 1965, she was sentenced for twenty years. Then she wrote her declaration for the sentence, still in her own blood. Part of her writing was thus:
“... This is a shameful verdict, but I proudly listen to it. This is the evaluation of my personal action of fight by the enemy. I heartily feel proud of myself to be a fighter. … I must do more to deserve your evaluation. Besides, the so-called verdict is senseless to me. I despise it. Wait and see: the historical court will soon give a formal verdict to people after me. You, those rogues, villains and traitors, will be real criminals. Victory to justice! Long live freedom! Lin Zhao 06/01/1965.”
On the twenty-ninth of April in 1968, she got a new verdict of death. She was shot dead in the airdrome of Longhua, a place in Shanghai. Her body was never delivered to her family. But on the first day of May that year, the police came to see her mother to demand her to pay five cents for the bullet they used to shot her daughter dead. Her father made suicide. Her mother became insane and made suicide on the Bund of Shanghai.
In April of 2009, her sister Peng Lingfan brought all her personal stuff to USA and donated them to the reference room of the library of Stanford University. Her stuff included her articles written in blood, her open letters and her private letters, also family photos. Let''s salute the heroine!
(字数:6526)
海外逸士
第8楼
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作者:海外逸士 2019-06-02 20:52:48|最后回复:海外逸士 2019-07-21 20:06:23|人气:95|回复:7
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