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热门主题 Two Republics in China (2) 【按树型格式阅读】
作者:海外逸士 2019-09-04 20:27:20|最后回复:海外逸士 2019-09-18 20:45:29|人气:123|回复:8
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Two Republics in China (2)
(continued)
Duan re-organized his army to attack the army of the military government, which now lost the support of the other governors and had to fight alone. It was soon defeated. But Wu Peifu (1874–1939), the commander of Duan’s army, ceased his assault and made a truce with the military government, ignoring Duan’s command. As Feng and Duan always had conflicts of opinion, or in reality, of personal interests, both agreed to resign at the same time. That was on the 4th of September, 1918.
Sun Yat-sen’s goal was to let his National Party unite the whole of China under the rule of his party. But this ran counter to the interests of the warlords. So he lost most of his supporters and only a few were left. On the 21st of May, 1918, he left Canton for Shanghai, where he met Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975). The military government was controlled by the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces.
As Sun resigned and left Canton, his army (under the command of Chen Jiongming) went to Fujian province, and together with the army under the command of Chiang Kai-shek they defeated Duan’s army there. That happened in June of 1918.
Although Duan was not in the cabinet, he still had his army. So Zhang Zuoling (1875–1928) and Wu Peifu allied to fight him. On the 14th of July, 1920, Duan’s army was overcome. Then Xu Shichang, who had nothing under his control, was selected (not elected, as there was no more congress) by the warlords to be a puppet president.
In August 1920, the army stationed in Fujian province marched back to Guangdong province to assail the Guangxi province army there. On the 28th of October, the military government was back under the control of Sun’s army. So on the 28th of November, Sun returned to Canton.
On the 12th of January, 1921, a special congress was organized and on the 2nd of April, the congress held a session to annul the military government and resume the name of the Republic of China. On the 7th day, Sun was elected President and took an oath at a ceremony on the 5th of May.
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时间:2019-09-06 20:30:57|人气:15 海外逸士的留言簿 回复贴子
Sun Yat-sen went north, looking to overthrow the Peking government
Sun Yat-sen still persisted in marching north to overthrow the Peking government. He thought of it as a warlord government, not a revolutionary government. He wanted to found a revolutionary government for the people. Anyway, the governors of all the provinces and even Chen Jiongming (1878–1933), the commander of his army (actually another warlord), did not see things that way. Those men only wanted to have a federal government of warlords.
On the 26th of March, 1922, Sun Yat-sen held a meeting and decided to go north to take down the Peking government. On the 9th of April, when the Revolutionary Army reached the Meng River, it was blockaded by Chen Jiongming’s army which was encamped there. Sun gave orders that if Chen’s army did not make way for him, he would launch an attack. When Sun reached Wuzhou Town, he summoned Chen to meet him, but Chen refused to go there. Sun removed him from the position of commander. Chen wanted his army to prepare for a war against Sun, but the army in Canton refused to carry out his order. There was nothing he could do but go back to his old home in Huizhou Town. However, part of his army was still loyal to him.
In early April 1922, Wu Peifu sent an emissary to contact Chen and asked him to prevent Sun Yat-sen by force from going north. Meantime, Duan and Zhang Zuolin wanted to ally with Sun to vanquish Wu. The situation got complicated. Everyone was putting his own interests first and relationships between friends and enemies often changed.
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continued
On the 23rd of April, Sun Yat-sen gathered his generals for a meeting in his presidential residence to decide what to do next. There were two options. One was to first annihilate Chen’s army so that he could not give the Revolutionary Army a stab from behind. Chiang Kai-shek held this opinion. The other was to immediately march north, while doing their best to avoid any conflict with Chen’s army. Sun tended toward the second opinion, as he thought that Chen had not really betrayed him, at least not yet. He had no reason to attack Chen. Chiang Kai-shek thought that Chen would at long last betray Sun. Since Sun did not believe him, he left Guangdong province, while writing a letter to Chen advising him not to betray Sun.
When Sun Yat-sen came back to Canton, he still allowed Chen to be the commander of the first army. But Chen refused to take the appointment. On the 28th of April, Zhang Zuolin, Duan Qirui and Sun Yat-sen formed an alliance to fight Wu Peifu. Sun thought that this created an opportunity for him to go north.
On the 4th of May, Zhang’s army was beaten by Wu’s, and Zhang had to retreat back to where he had come from, northeastern China. Wu took control in Peking. Wu had a secret agreement with Chen Jiongming that he would drive away the current president, Xu Shichang, and Chen would drive away Sun Yat-sen. Then the first step was to let Li Yuanhong back into the presidency and get him to wipe out all the warlords everywhere, except of course the two of them. If Li failed to do so, he would be the scapegoat. If he succeeded, Wu and Chen would use the congress to have themselves elected as the president and the vice president.
So they announced that the current president Xu was illegal. Xu resigned on the 2nd of June. Once back in the presidency, Li denounced that warrant that was out for Sun Yat-sen and invited him to Peking to discuss national affairs. He also appointed many warlords in the south, but none of them accepted his appointments. Afterwards, as Wu and Chen saw that Li could do nothing for them, they forced Li to quit the presidency again. Li went back to Tianjin City.
On the 9th of May, Sun issued an order for a general attack, and on the 13th of June, the Revolutionary Army put Wu’s army to rout in Jiangxi province. Wu sent his man to Chen and asked him to take action as soon as possible.
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时间:2019-09-09 21:32:25|人气:16 海外逸士的留言簿 回复贴子
Chen Jiongming Turns Traitor in Canton
When Chen went back to his hometown, he took with him a lot of guns and ammunition, enough to arm 40 battalions. On the 20th of May, Chen’s subordinate, Ye Ju, led his troops into Canton and started a treasonous action. By the 1st of June, the situation had become acute. Liao Zhongkai, a faithful follower of Sun, sent a telegram to Sun Yat-sen asking him to come back to Canton. When Sun was back in Canton, he summoned Chen, but Chen refused to come.
On the 12th of June, Sun Yat-sen ordered Ye Ju out of Canton. Next day, Chen and Ye secretly met at Shilong. They knew that, to prevent Sun from going north to fight Wu, they would have to cut off his access to financing. Liao was the person who provided Sun with everything. So they decided to kidnap Liao. On the 14th day, Chen sent a telegram to Liao to invite him to his hometown for some important business. On the fifth day, Liao went there and was detained. Then Ye Ju maneuvered his troops and planned to attack Sun’s residence with cannons. On the 16th day, Sun was informed of this and took refuge on a warship.
On the 19th, Sun Yat-sen sent a telegram to the Revolutionary Army at the frontier to come back to Guangdong province. On the 2nd of July, the Revolutionary Army started to assail Chen’s army in Guangdong province, and beat the betraying army. Chen sent a telegram to Wu seeking assistance. Wu sent some troops to Guangdong province. On the 26th of July, the Revolutionary Army was chasing after Chen’s retreating army but met with the reinforcements sent by Wu. Therefore, the Revolutionary Army had to withdraw. When Sun Yat-sen learned this, he had to leave Guangdong province and go to Shanghai. Liao was released and left Canton. When Chen attempted to assassinate him afterwards, he was already gone.
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continued
On the 16th of August, 1922, Sun Yat-sen made a statement accusing Chen of betrayal. To annihilate the treacherous army, Sun determined to ally with Duan. In October, he appointed Xu Chongzhi as the commander-in-chief and Chiang Kai-shek as the chief of staff. On one side, the Revolutionary Army together with Duan’s army vanquished Wu’s army. On the other, the armies of Yunnan and Guangxi provinces, who supported Sun, defeated Chen’s army. On the 14th of January, 1923, troops in Guangdong province turned over to Sun and attacked Chen, who escaped to his hometown, Huizhou.
On the 15th of February, Sun Yat-sen returned to Canton. In April, Chen Hongying, a warlord in Guangxi province, accepted the appointment of the Peking government to be the governor of Guangdong province, and came to attack Canton, but was soon subdued. He escaped to Hong Kong.
At the end of 1924, Sun went to Peking to discuss national affairs, but he was fatally ill. In February the Revolutionary Army, now under the full command of Chiang Kai-shek, marched east to wipe out the warlords there. Sun died on the 12th of March, 1925. He famously wrote, in his will, “The revolution is not successful yet; comrades must still make efforts.” That June, Chen Jiongming betrayed the cause again, but he was soon wiped out by Chiang Kai-shek.
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时间:2019-09-13 20:57:52|人气:9 海外逸士的留言簿 回复贴子
Early History of the Communist Party of China (CPC)
The organization of the Communist Party of China

In April 1920, the Communist International sent Grigori Voitinsky to China. In May, he found Chen Duxiu, 42 at the time, and sought to contact some revolutionary young men in other cities to establish the Communist Party of China, the CPC. Chen was the professor who had been arrested in the May 4 student movement in 1919. In August 1920, under instructions of the Soviet Communist Party, the Communist Party of China was established in Shanghai. At that time, it was called Communist Group with Chen Duxiu as the general secretary.
But after the Communisst Party took over the reign of the mainland, public data they issued state that the first meeting of the Communist Party was held about a year later, in Shanghai, on the 1st of July, 1921. Why was the earlier date concealed from the public? There might be two reasons. One was that they wanted to cover up the fact that the Communist International had had a hand in it. The other is that Mao attended the meeting in Shanghai, so by emphasizing that meeting they could say that Mao was one of the founders, enhancing his image. But the meeting was in 1920, not in 1921 in Shanghai.
Fifteen people attended the meeting on the 23rd of July, 1921, at 106 Wangzhi Road (presently 76 Xingye Road) in Shanghai. These included Mao Zedong (1893–1976); Dong Biwu (1886–1975, later the vice chairman of the People’s Republic of China); Zhang Guotao (1897–1979, later commander of the Red 4th Army in the Long March); Chen Gongbo (1890–1946); and Zhou Fohai (1897–1948). The last two later defected to Japanese invaders in Sino–Japanese War (1937—1945). Also present were Malin and Nico Chhabra (representatives from the Communist International).
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continued
Soon some suspicious men were found lurking outside the house. The meeting broke up and everyone discretely slipped away. And the next day, they met on a boat on the South Lake in Jiaxing Town, casually playing mahjong while in fact continuing their meeting. Thus the Communist Party of China was established. At that time it had only 50 members.
On the 23rd of December, 1921, accompanied by an interpreter, Malin went to see Sun Yat-sen in Guilin City of Guangxi province. He stayed there for nine days and concluded that Communist Party members could join the National Party while still maintaining their status in the Communist Party. This would help the Communist Party to develop. But his idea was strongly opposed by some party members, especially Chen Duxiu who was then the leader of the party. So on the 23rd of April, 1922, Malin left Shanghai for Holland, by sea, and then, through Berlin, made it to Moscow. He reported his work in China to the Soviet Communist Party, which consented to his idea. On the 27th of July, the Soviet Union sent a representative to China, together with Malin, with instructions. Malin typed the instructions on the shirt he wore. In Shanghai, Malin met Chen Duxiu and gave him his shirt.
Chen Duxiu had to obey the decision of the Communist International because at the second meeting of the Communist Party, held from July 16–23, 1922, at 625 South Chengdu Road in Shanghai, they had decided to join the Communist International. Chen Duxiu and Zhang Guotao attended the meeting with ten other representatives. Then the Communist Party of China got financial aid from the Communist International.
On the 29th and 30th of August, 1922, the Communist Party of China (CPC) held a central meeting on the West Lake in Hangzhou City and decided to found the First United Front, an alliance between the National Party and the Communist Party.
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continued
In June 1923, the Communist Party had its third meeting in Canton, and 40 representatives, representing 420 party members, discussed the issue of the First United Front. They elected Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao (1889–1927), Mao Zedong, and Xiang Ying (1898–1941, who later became commander of the New 4th Army in the Sino–Japanese War), and five others, as members of the Central Committee.
It was said that after the meeting, at the urging of the Communist Party, Sun Yat-sen proposed his three great policies: Alliance with Russia, Co-operation with the Communist Party, and Assistance to Peasants and Workers. But as a matter of fact, Sun never identified with such policies. This was just invented by Mikhail Markovich Borodin, a Russian counselor to the Communist Party of China, to make them look good. Then the Communist Party used this invention as a fact for its own purposes.
Why did Sun agree to the United Front notion? It was because Sun always held to his ideal of Three Principles for the People: the Principle of Nationalism, the Principle of Democracy, and the Principle of People’s Livelihood. Ironically, this party, which was also called Kuomintang by the pronunciations of the Chinese characters “National Party,” evolved into a highly centralized, hierarchical, and authoritarian party. Sun thought that the ideal of communism was closest to his three principles and so he wanted to unite with the Communist Party against their common enemies—warlords who were still taking advantage of the power void left when the imperial order crumbled.
From the 20th to the 30th of January, 1924, the 196 representatives of the National Party held their first conference in Canton (now Guangzhou). Sun was the chairman and the Russian counselor Borodin was in attendance. Some Communist Party members were elected into the executive committee of the National Party. Li Dazhao and a few others were members and Mao Zedong, Zhang Guotao were alternate members.
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continued
In the autumn of 1924, General Feng Yuxiang (1882–1948) launched a coup d’état and took control of the Peking government. He invited Sun Yat-sen to Peking to discuss national affairs. In the morning of November 5, Feng sent his troops to surround the Forbidden City and ordered the abdicated emperor to move out. So Henry gathered his precious belongings and moved to Tianjin City with his family. A few faithful old courtiers followed him there.
On November 13, 1924, Sun Yat-sen started from Canton and arrived in Peking on the 31st of December. It was soon found that he was suffering from liver cancer and he died on March 12, 1925. Sun had been in Peking three times. First, in 1894, he went to Peking with the intention of advising the Qing officials on how it might reform the government. But when he saw how serious the corruption was, he realized that no reform could be enough to save China. So he decided to make a revolution. His second visit was in 1912 when the Republic of China was founded. He went to Peking to advise Yuan Shikai that if Yuan could carry on the revolution, he would resign from the temporary presidency. This was his third time.
On the 15th of September, Zhang Zuolin came with his forces from the northeastern provinces towards Peking and allied with Feng Yuxiang. Then a battle broke out between Zhang, Feng and Wu Peifu. Wu’s army was put to rout and Wu escaped south to Hunan and Hubei provinces. Thereafter, Peking fell under the control of Zhang Zuolin, who was always backed by Japan.
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热门主题 Two Republics in China (2) 【按树型格式阅读】
作者:海外逸士 2019-09-04 20:27:20|最后回复:海外逸士 2019-09-18 20:45:29|人气:123|回复:8
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